Artigos (working papers)

  • A publicação dos Working Papers produzidos pela DIREITO SP tem por objetivo contribuir para o aumento da qualidade das Pesquisas Acadêmicas em Direito no país, pois acredita que o trabalho de Pesquisa precisa ser coletivo. Os textos são divulgados com o fim de intensificar a discussão pública de produtos parciais e inacabados, criando a oportunidade para a crítica e eventual alteração da abordagem adotada, por meio da incorporação de dados, fontes e teorias ainda não utilizados. A ideia é precisamente contribuir para o desenvolvimento e consolidação de uma rede de interlocutores nacionais e internacionais com nossos Professores, Pesquisadores, Alunos e Ex-alunos. Dessa forma, convidam-se os interessados à leitura crítica dos textos aqui publicados e ao envio de comentários aos respectivos autores. Por se tratarem de textos inacabados, é vedada a citação deles, exceto com a autorização expressa do autor.

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  • David R. DeRemer
    In trade agreements, governments can design remedies to ensure compliance (property rule) or to compensate victims (liability rule). This paper describes an economic framework to explain the pattern of remedies over non-tariff restrictions—particularly domestic subsidies and nonviolation complaints subject to liability rules. The key determinants of the contract form for any individual measure are the expected joint surplus from an agreement and the expected loss to the constrained government. The loss is higher for domestic subsidies and nonviolations because these are the policies most likely to correct domestic distortions. Governments choose property rules when expected gains from compliance are sufficiently high and expected losses to the constrained country are sufficiently low. Liability rules are preferable when dispute costs are relatively high, because inefficiencies in the compensation process reduce the number of socially inefficient disputes filed.
  • Geraldo de Camargo Vidigal
    This paper examines two different approaches to judicial protection of entitlements in international economic law. One of them, ‘performance-oriented’, is applied by WTO adjudicators. Performance-oriented remedies focus on inducing wrongdoers to resume compliance with the underlying substantive rules. The other, ‘reparation-oriented’, is applied overwhelmingly in international investment law. Reparation-oriented remedies aim at offsetting the injury caused to private parties by the wrongful conduct. This paper discusses the utility of performance-oriented remedies within WTO law, and assesses the possibilities for otherwise reparation-oriented investment tribunals to have recourse to these remedies. It examines a number of decisions that, it is argued, favor performance over pecuniary compensation. From the viewpoint of the state found in breach, compensation then appears as a threatened sanction for non-compliance with the performance obligations determined.
  • Ricardo Garcia de la Rosa
    This position paper argues that at this time of Mexico’s ongoing big transformation, legal educators and researchers in Mexico need to pay greater attention to international economic law, and that a renewal and perhaps some re-orientation of the approach to teaching international economic law, could provide significant contributions to and shape and support both the objectives and outcomes of reform in Mexico. International Economic Law courses and research can be made more useful, not only for students themselves, but also for their contribution towards the role that academics, lawyers, and other epistemic communities need to play in the political, economic and social evolution that is accelerating in Mexico.
  • Henok Birhanu Asmelash
    Over the past few years, renewable energy subsidies have become one of the main sources of trade disputes in the WTO. A total of six cases have been initiated against renewable energy subsidy programs since the first of such disputes was brought by Japan against Canada’s Feed in Tariff (FIT) program in 2010. Yet not even a single case has so far been initiated against the much larger and environmentally harmful fossil fuel subsidies. The main objective of this paper is to examine what makes renewable energy subsidies vulnerable to WTO dispute, as compared fossil fuel subsidies.
  • Alynne Nayara Ferreira Nunes
    Com a sistemática das competências concorrentes trazida pela CF de 1988, e as frequentes críticas sobre o direito à educação, pesquisou-se qual o âmbito de atuação dos órgãos normativos federais, estaduais e distritais acerca desse direito. Qual é, portanto, o limite de cada ente? Para responder à pergunta, coletaram-se acórdãos do STF, órgão encarregado de interpretar a Constituição. A posição da Corte é de deferência ao texto constitucional e à LDB, consagrando o principado neles expostos, no que diz respeito à fixação das diretrizes gerais. Nessa seara, aos Estados cabe complementar esse sistema, acrescentando novas disciplinas, dispor sobre prazos para cumprimento de programas de lei federal, e criar programas com fundamento nas regras gerais da União. Os contornos dos intrincados termos previstos na competência concorrente não são delimitados. Por fim, sendo a educação um direito eminentemente prestacional, exige mais do Poder Executivo...
  • 05/09/2014
    Almost a full century separates Lewis’ Alice in Wonderland (1865) and the second, lengthier and more elaborate edition of Hans Kelsen’s Pure Theory of Law (1960; first edition published in 1934). And yet, it is possible to argue that the former anticipates and critically addresses many of the philosophical assumptions that underlie and are elemental to the argument of the latter. Both texts, with the illuminating differences that arise from their disparate genre, have as one of their key themes norms and their functioning. Wonderland, as Alice soon finds out, is a world beset by rules of all kinds: from the etiquette rituals of the mad tea-party to the changing setting for the cricket game to the procedural insanity of the trial with which the novel ends. Pure Theory of Law, as Kelsen emphatically stresses, has the grundnorm as the cornerstone upon which the whole theoretical edifice rests2. This paper discusses some of the assumptions underlying Kelsen’s argument as an instance of...
  • 05/09/2014
    The idea that life undergoes a process of functional differentiation, and that, as a consequence, law becomes increasingly specialized – and maybe even transforms in its very nature – is now widespread. The specialized clusters of law or regulation are very often called regimes, in the international arena, international or transnational regimes. This paper deals, first, with three strong representations of international regimes and discusses some of their problems. It argues that, in order to make a good use of the category, it is necessary to keep in mind the differentiation between law and non-law in the wider context of governance. It then turns, firstly, to the notion of regimes as fragments of a unified and coherent public international law order and, secondly, as meeting points of regulations emerging from different legal orders as well as from other non-legal sources. Within public international law, regimes are seen as related to what is called the double fragmentation of that...
  • Alexandre Ramos Coelho
    This paper aims to verify the main contributions and adjustments that the paper “Towards a Legal Theory of Finance” from Katharina Pistor may bring to the role of the Brazilian National Bank for Economic and Social Development (BNDES) in the Brazilian development financing. In order to do so, I work with two questions in this paper: (i) such theory presents elements which allow analyzing the role of the BNDES and from there, if it is required, adjustments can be made in the governance of the BNDES? and (ii) there are academics and scholars that, together with the theory, also contribute with the improvement of the BNDES role in the development of Brazil?
  • Mariana Pargendler
  • 24/06/2014
    This paper analyzes the Brazilian Supreme Court (STF) Decision (ADPF n. 54) in which the court, by majority of votes, stated that the termination of the pregnancy of an anencephalic fetus does not constitute a crime of abortion. The paper analyzes the arguments used by the judges in their opinions to show that they agree on the conclusion, but strongly disagree on their reasons, with the result that the court remains deeply divided on the legal concept of life. The paper then points to the fact that the possibility of different majority positions regarding the decision and the arguments that justify it is not accidental, but the result of the court’s structure, which does not guarantee the collective rationality of the court’s decisions.
    Neste texto se faz uma análise do acórdão do STF na ADPF n. 54, o qual, por maioria, decidiu que a interrupção de gravidez de feto anencefálico não constitui crime de...


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